Applied Data Science Series : Solving a Predictive Maintenance Business Problem – Part III

battery2

In the previous post of the series we discussed the exploratory analysis phase and saw how the combination of domain knowledge and single variable exploration unravels intuitions from the data. In this post we will expand our analysis to multiple variables and then see how intuitions we develop during the exploration phase, can lead to generating new features for modelling.

In the example we were discussing, we were limited to analysis of a single variable i.e conductance. However to get more meaningful insights we have to connect other variables layer by layer to the initial variable which we have analysed to get more insights on the problem. As far as battery is concerned some of the critical variables other than conductance are voltage and discharge. Let us connect these two variables along with the conductance profile to gain more intuitions from the data.

Multivariable_plot

The above figure is a plot which depicts three variables across the same time span. The idea of plotting multiple variables together across a common time span is to unearth any discernible trends we can see together. A cursory look at this plot will reveal some obvious observations.

  1. The fall in current and voltage in conjunction with drop in conductance.
  2. The cyclic nature of the voltage profile.
  3. A gradual drop in the troughs of the voltage profile.

Having made some observations,we now need to ascertain whether these observations can be codified to some definitive trends. This can be verified only by observing plots for many samples of similar variables. By sampling data pertaining to many batteries if we can get similar observations, then we can be sure that we have unearthed some trends explaining behaviors of different variables. However just unearthing some trends will not suffice. We have to get some intuitions from such trends which will help in transforming the raw variables to some form which will help in the modelling task. This is achieved by feature engineering the raw variables.

Feature Engineering

Many a times the given set of raw variables will not suffice for extracting the required predictive power from the model. We will have to transform the raw variables to generate new variables giving us the extra thrust towards better predictive metrics. What transformation has to be done, will be based on the intuitions we build during the exploratory analysis phase and also by combining domain knowledge. For the case of batteries let us revisit some of the intuitions we build during the exploratory analysis phase and see how these intuitions we build can be used for feature engineering.

In the previous post , we found out that precipitous fall in conductance is an indicator of failing health of a battery. So a probable feature we can extract from the conductance variable is the slope of the data points over a fixed time span.The rationale for such a feature is this, if precipitous fall in conductance over time is an indicator of failing health of a battery  then the slope of data points for a battery which is failing will be more steeper than the battery which is healthy. It was observed that through such transformation there was a positive influence on predictive metrics. The dynamics of such transformation is as follows, if we have conductance data for the battery for three years, we can take consecutive three month window of conductance data and take the slope of all the data points and make it as a feature.  By doing this, the number of rows of data for the variable also gets consolidated to much fewer numbers.

Let us also look at another example of feature engineering which we can introduce to the variable, discharge voltage. As seen from the above figure, the discharge voltage follows a wave like profile. It turns out that when a battery discharges the voltage first drops and then it rises. This behavior is called the “Coupe De Fouet” (CDF) effect. Now our thought should be, how do we combine the observed wave like pattern and the knowledge about CDF into a feature ? Again we have to dig into domain knowledge. As per theory on the state of health of batteries there are standards for the CDF profile of a healthy battery and that of a failing battery. These are prescribed by the manufacturer of the battery. For example the manufacturing standards prescribe certain depth to which the voltage will fall during discharge and certain height to which it will go up during a typical CDF effect. The deviance between the observed CDF and the manufacture prescribed standard can be taken as another feature. Similarly we can also think of other features related to voltage, like depth of discharge ( DOD), number of cycles etc. Our focus should be in using the available domain knowledge to transform raw variables into features.

As seen from the above two examples the essence of feature engineering is all about translating the domain knowledge and the trends seen in the data to more meaningful features. The veracity of the models which are built depends a lot on the strength of  the features built. Now that we have seen the feature engineering phase let us now look at modelling strategy for this use case.

Modelling Phase

In the first part of this use case we discussed about labeling strategy for training the model. Since the use case is to predict which battery would fail and at what period of time, we have to look back in time from the failure point label for creating different classes related to periods of failure. In this specific case, the different features were created by consolidating 3 months of data into a single row. So one period before failure would denote 3 months before failure. So if the requirement is to predict failure 6 months prior to when it is likely to happen, then we will have 4 different classes i.e  failure point,one period before failure(3 months prior to failure point) ,two periods before failure and (6 months prior to failure point) & normal state. All periods prior to 6 months can be labelled as normal state.

With respect to modelling, we can spot check with different classification algorithms ( logistic regression, Naive bayes, SVM, Random Forest, XGboost .. etc). The choice of final model will be based on the accuracy metrics ( sensitivity , specificity etc) of the spot checked models. Another aspect which might be useful to note is also that, data set could be highly unbalanced i.e the number of normal battery classes is likely to outnumber the failure classes disproportionately. It will be a good idea to try out class balancing methods on the data set before modelling.

Wrapping up

This post brings down curtains to the three part series on predictive analytics for industrial batteries. Any use case within the manufacturing sector can be quite challenging as the variables involved are very technical and would require lot of interventions from related domain teams. Constant engagement of domain specialist as part of the data science team is very important for the success of such projects.

I have tried my best to write the nuances of such a difficult use case. I have tried to cover the critical elements in the process. In case of any clarifications on the use case and details of its implementation you can connect with me through the following email id bayesianquest@gmail.com. Looking forward to hearing from you.  Till then let me sign off.

Watch this space for more such use cases.

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Applied Data Science Series : Solving a Predictive Maintenance Business Problem – Part II

 

ExploratoryAnalysis

 

In the first part of the applied data science series, we discussed about first three phases of the data science process namely business discovery, data discovery and data preparation. In business discover phase we talked on how the business problem i.e. predicting end life of batteries, defines the choice of  variables that comes into play. In the data discovery phase we discussed data sufficiency and other considerations like variety and velocity of data and how these considerations affect the data science problem formulation. In the last phase we touched upon how the data points and its various constituents drive the predictive problem formulation. In this post we will discuss further on how exploratory analysis can be used for getting insights for feature engineering.

Exploratory Analysis – Unraveling latent trends

This phase entails digging deep to get a feel of the data and extract intuitions for feature engineering. When embarking upon exploratory analysis, it would be a good idea to get inputs from domain team on the relation between variables and the business problem. Such inputs are often the starting point for this phase.

Let us now get to the context of our preventive maintenance problem and evolve a philosophy for exploratory analysis.In the case of industrial batteries, a key variable which affects the state of health of a battery is its conductance. It turns out that an indicator of failing health of  battery is the precipitous drop in conductance. Armed with this information our next task should be to  identify, from our available data set,batteries that have higher probability to fail. Since precipitous fall in conductance is an indicator of failing health,the conductance data of  unhealthy batteries will have more variance than the normal ones. So the best way to identify failing batteries from the normal ones would be to apply some consolidating metric like standard deviation or variance on the conductance data and further drill deep on samples which stand apart from the normal population.

SD1_Plot The above is a plot depicting standard deviation of conductance for all batteries. Now what might be of interest to us is the red zone which we can call the “Potential failure Zone”. The potential failure zone consists of those batteries whose conductance values show high standard deviation. Batteries with failing health are likely to exhibit large fall in conductance and as a corollary their values will also show higher standard deviation. This implies that the samples of batteries which have higher probability of failure will in all likelihood be from this failure zone. However to ascertain this hypothesis we will have to dig deep into batteries in the failure zone and look for patterns which might differentiate them from normal batteries. Another objective to dig deep is also to elicit clues from the underlying patterns on what features to include in the predictive model. We will discuss more on the feature extraction when we discuss about feature engineering. Now let us come back to our discussion on digging deep into the failure zone and ferreting out significant patterns. It has to be noted that in addition to the samples in the failure zone we will also have to observe patterns from the normal zone to help separate wheat from the chaff . Intuitions derived by observing different patterns would become vital during feature engineering stage.

Conductance_Comparison

The above figure is a comparison of patterns from either zones. The figure on the left is from the failure zone and the one on the right is from the other. We can clearly see how the precipitous fall is manifested in the sample from the failure zone. The other aspect to note is also the magnitude of the fall. Every battery will have degrading conductance over time. However the magnitude of  degradation is what differentiates the unhealthy  battery from a normal one. We can observe from the plot on the left that the fall in conductance is more than 50%, however for the battery to the right the drop is more muted.  Another aspect we can observe is the slope of conductance. As evident from the two plots, the slope of  conductance profile for the battery on the left is much more steeper over time than the one on the right. These intuitions which we have derived so far might become critical from the overall scheme of feature engineering and modelling. Similar to the intuitions which we have disinterred so far, more could be extracted by observing more samples. The philosophy behind exploratory analysis entails visualizing more and more samples, observing patterns and extracting clues for feature engineering. The more time we spend on doing this more ammunition we get for feature engineering.

Wrapping up

So far we discussed different considerations for the exploratory analysis phase. To summarize, here are some of the pointers during this phase.

  1. Take inputs from domain team related to the problem we are trying to solve. In our case the clue which we got was the relation between conductance and health of batteries.
  2. Identify any consolidating metric for the variable under consideration to separate out anomalous samples. In the example above we used standard deviation of conductance values to find anomalies.
  3. Once the samples are demarcated using the consolidation metric, visualize samples from different sets to identify discernible patterns in data.
  4. From the patterns we observe root out clues for feature engineering. In our example we identified that % fall in conductance and slope of conductance over time could be potential features.

The above pointers are general guidelines on how one should think through during  exploratory analysis phase.

The discussions so far were centered on exploratory analysis on a single variable. Next we have to connect other variables to the one which we already observed and identify trends in unison. When we combine trends from multiple variables we will be able to unravel more insights for feature engineering. We will continue our discussions on combining more variables and subsequent feature engineering in our next post. Watch out this space for more.